Light-emitting Diode Phototherapy at 630  3 nm Increases Local Levels of Skin-homing T-cells in Human Subjects

Background and aims: Red light phototherapy with laser sources has been used successfully for a number of indications. A new generation of quasimonochromatic 630  3 nm light-emitting diode (LED) systems has recently been yielding good results for the same indications, but no study has examined changes in visible red light irradiated skin at an immunological level. This study was thus designed to examine changes in skin-homing T-cell
levels induced in normal human skin by visible red LED energy. Subjects and methods: Six adult male volunteers (3548 years old) who satisfied all study criteria had the skin over the lateral aspect of the leg irradiated once per week for 8 weeks with a visible red (630  3 nm) LED-based system, with irradiance of 105 mcm2, 15 minutes session, and a radiant flux of 94 Jcm2. Skin biopsies were performed after the eighth treatment session, and cultures were prepared to assay the type and quantity of skin-homing T-cells using qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Ultrastructural changes were also assessed with transmission electron microscopy.

Results: Transmission electron microscopy revealed mild fibroplastic changes in fibroblasts, with no acute inflammatory changes throughout the treatment session. Qualitative PCR showed the presence of both Th-1 and Th-2 T-cells, and quantitative PCR showed an increase in the numbers of both types of skin-homing T-cells, much more so for Th-2 than for Th-1.

Conclusions: Visible red LED irradiation appears to activate the skin-homing immune system.
(J Nippon Med Sch 2006; 73: 7581)

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LED and laser photobiomodulation in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis: experimental study in hamsters

Purpose This paper aims to evaluate the effects of laser (660 nm) and light-emitting diode (LED) (670 nm) irradiation in the cheek pouch mucosa of hamsters with oral mucositis (OM) induced by chemotherapy (Che) with 5-fluorouracil (5- FU). Materials and methods In the preventive groups, the photobiomodulation was started 1 day before the drug administration and was performed every 48 h (Ia, IIa, Ib, and IIb). In the therapeutic groups (IIIa, IIIb, IVa, and IVb), the irradiations were started on the third day after the Che d(0) and was performed every 48 h. In both groups, animals were sacrificed 7 or 14 days after Che. In the positive control groups, the hamsters were subjected to Che but did not receive irradiation, and they were sacrificed in 7 days (Va) or 14 days (Vb). In the negative control groups, no procedures were done and the animals were sacrificed 7 days (Vc) or 14 days (Vd) after the experiment started. Results The results indicated loss of body mass, xerostomia, and alopecia in the animals subjected to Che and the healing of OM to different degrees after the photobiomodulation treatment. Histologically, the positive control and experimental groups showed inflammation, predominately with lymphocytes and plasma cells, which tended to diminish with time. Epithelial atrophy, hyperemia, fibroblast proliferation, and vascular congestion were also observed at those intervals.

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Apesar da evolução das técnicas cirúrgicas utilizadas, o pós operatório das cirurgias estéticas
ainda deixam sequelas na região envolvida, como dor, edema, equimoses, lipodestruição, retração
cicatricial, fibroses e outras. A dor e o edema diminuem progressivamente, porém, com o tratamento
fisioterapêutico pode ser reduzido consideravelmente em poucas semanas. A fototerapia é uma modalidade
terapêutica que pode ser empregada após procedimentos cirúrgicos. Nos últimos anos, a fototerapia por
luzes coerentes e não coerentes vem se destacando como método bioestimulador para o reparo tecidual.
Poucos estudos foram realizados visando apontar o emprego da fototerapia na redução do edema pós
operatório, sendo o objetivo de estudo desta revisão.

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